On December 9, 1986, a rupture occurred in an 18-inch diameter elbow in the feedwater pipe leading to the main feed pump "A" of Virginia
Power Surry Unit #2. The "break before leak" demonstrated itself as the separation of a large piece of the carbon steel elbow,
which was found to have been significantly weakened by wall thinning caused by flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC, E-C).
In 1995, a fatal
pipe break at the economizer inlet occurred at a Wisconsin utility and in 1996 at a Wisconsin paper mill. An industry survey
revealed that wall thinning by flow-accelerated corrosion, as well as formation of excessive amounts of corrosion products in the
steam cycle is a widespread problem. Almost 100% of PWR unit wet steam and 50% of preboiler systems, 30% of fossil, and 40%
of industrial units in the U.S. are affected. Flow-accelerated corrosion is also very common in the combined cycle units in piping
and HRSGs. It can lead to catastrophic failures, leaks in feedwater, wet steam, and condensate piping, interference with proper
cycle chemistry control, and accumulation of corrosion products in steam generators, turbines, and on heat transfer surfaces.
various sources of field and laboratory data, Jonas, Inc. has developed an evaluation procedure as described below.