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Proper techniques and adequate documentation are critical for description, collection, and analysis of deposits.
Troubleshooting Resources / Technical Articles
Interrelations and interactions between the mechanical and thermodynamic design, material properties, and steam and deposit chemistry
are discussed and recommendations and corrosion design rules and requirements pertinent to turbine corrosion are given.
This paper gives information on the problem of copper deposition leading to MW and efficiency loss occurring in steam cycles and available
This article describes typical turbine corrosion problems and the monitoring techniques used to predict, prevent, and troubleshoot
them. The effects of corrosion on turbine efficiency are covered.
Procedures for collecting water and steam grab samples from various locations around the cycle.
Countering corrosion in boilers, steam turbines, condensers, HRSGs, and other steam- or water-handling equipment is best done during
the design phase.
Possible material, fabrication, design, and operation and water chemistry effects and stress courses are discussed in relation to
deaerator and storage tank weld corrosion cracking.
Thinning of pipe walls and corrosion of other components in high-purity feedwater and steam systems can have catastrophic consequences.
Take time to review the problem and apply some important preventive steps.
The combined phenomenon reduces the integrity of piping and major cycle components, and is a prime contributor to sludge and crud
buildup in both drum boilers and nuclear steam systems.
This paper summarizes problems and solutions identified during over 100 root cause analyses and plant audits of fossil fuel utility
and industrial power plants, including combined cycle units.
Chemical-transport characteristics are important in selecting a water treatment program, establishing chemistry control limits, managing
the ingress and removal of impurities, and troubleshooting water treatment problems.
Presents an outline of cycle commissioning guidelines and a brief description of selected case histories where delays of commercial
operation and equipment damage resulted from insuffieient water chemistry-related commissioning.
In any steam cycle, more damage can be initiated during pre-commissioning, commissioning, and early operation, than during the following
years of normal operation.
Background on water chemistry and corrosion is given and sources of impurities, selection of water treatment, transport of chemicals
around the cycle, and the selection of sample points and monitored parameters are discussed.
This article gives the technical basis for selection of water treatment programs and summarizes the common water treatments used in
utility and industrial steam systems.
This paper discusses the main water chemistry and corrosion processes and problems associated with steam generation which are not
Phosphate hideout can result in changes of pH, as well as the concentrations of phosphate and other chemical species in the boiler
To help power plant operators and chemists to control cycle chemistry and corrosion, EPRI developed ChemExpert, an expert system based
on EPRI Guidelines and experience.
To protect steam generation and other water and steam-handling equipment against corrosion, the concentration of corrosive impurities
must be low.
New experimental data and theoretical considerations indicate that moisture droplet nucleation in steam turbines is a mixed heterogeneous-homogeneous
mechanism and that steam chemistry has strong effects.
Because power plant operating decisions often rely on water and steam chemistry information, a properly designed and operatedwater
and steam sampling system must be in place to ensure accurate sampling data.
Results of a two year research project, the objective of which was to develop and field test a sampling system for superheated steam
in fossil plants, are presented. The project included a survey of steam sampling priorities, a study of the role of particulate
and scale magnetite in transporting steam impurities, analysis of deposition in steam sampling nozzles and tubing, development of
design rules, and a construction and verification of the new sampling system.
Summary of common analytical and sampling errors, criteria for sampling, and a checklist for QA/QC procedures.
Reviews the current state of monitoring water and steam chemistry, scale and deposits, and corrosion in steam plants.
To quantitatively determine the moisture content and size distribution of water droplets, a new type of test using a continuous inline
Particle/Droplet Monitor was performed at the compressor station of the South Georgia Natural Gas Company.
To adequately analyze operational or design changes made to the steam gathering system, an accurate and on-line means of measuring
the impurity levels is highly desired. This paper describes the method used at a California plant for monitoring and improving
the purity of the steam delivered.
A new instrument fulfills the need for direct in-line, on-line monitoring by electronically determining the impacts of individual
contamination particles on a target probe permanently installed in the system to be cleaned.
Summarizes current safety issues in fossil utility and industrial steam cycles. Only the already experienced problems associated
with the water and steam handling equipment are included. There are other safety issues such as furnace explosions, fire hazards,
coal and other fuel handling, electrical systems, lifting, transportation, and human errors which are not discussed here.
Serving the power industry since 1983
Specializing in Sampling and Instrumentation, Corrosion,
Water and Steam Chemistry, and Failure Analysis